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War Between the Turks and the Persians: Conflict and Religion in the Safavid and Ottoman Worlds

War Between the Turks and the Persians: Conflict and Religion in the Safavid and Ottoman Worlds
Thomas Minadoi

Introduction by: Rudi Matthee

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Ottoman-Safavid conflict was viewed by the countries of Europe as being of benefit to their interests and there was a subsequent hunger for up-to-date intelligence of events in that part of the world. This, Minadoi was able to provide. As resident physician to the Venetian legation, he made use of his wide contacts within the community to gather commercial and diplomatic intelligence. He received strong encouragement from Venetian representatives in Aleppo to write this, his most famous work. It provides a detailed and lively account of the war between the Ottoman and Safavid dynasties in the late sixteenth century, when Ottoman sultan, Murad III, sought to extend his sphere of influence at the expense of the Safavids under Shah Mohammad Khodabandeh. There are very few western accounts of the conflict and Minadoi's is both highly informative and reliable and provides a valuable addition to non-western sources. Now rare, this edition is published with a new introduction from one of the foremost authorities on the history of Iran, Rudi Matthee.

Table of Contents

  • Contents Book 1 The causes that moved this author to write this history * The causes of the same war * Aidere beheaded * Ishmael the king uses great cruelties, publisheth a new religion * Amurath resolveth to move war against Persia * Periaconcona beheaded * New stirs in Persia * Consultations at Constantinople * Amurath will not in person go with the army but choseth Mustaffa Bassa to be his general * Mustaffa arriveth at Chars * The King of Persia sendeth soldiers against the Turks * Tocomac cometh toward Chars * At first Tocomac doth happily overcome the Turkes * The particular of the victory * Mannucchiar the Georgian yieldeth himself to Mustaffa Book 2 The birth of Mahamet and his proceedings * The testament and death of Mahamet * The original of the Persian and Turkish sects * The errors of Jovius and others touching the original name of Soffito or Soffi * The increase of the Persian kingdom * The geographical description of the kingdom of the Persians * The geographical description of Georgia * The historiography of them both * The orders of dignities or offices in the Persian religion * The orders of dignities or offices in the Persian government * The Persian soldiers * The arms and weapons of the Persian soldiers * Their horses: and the manner of ordering their armies * Survey of the Persian armies * The revenues of that kingdom Book 3 The Turkish army departeth for Teflis * A review of the army * It cometh to Triala. It winneth a castle * It taketh Teflis and fortifieth it and then departeth for Servan * The Sorians forsake the army of Mustaffa and on their return home to Aleppo are assailed by the Georgians * The ambassadors of Leventogli entertained by Mustaffa * Leventogli himself also entertained Seclis, as city under Servania, yielded to Mustaffa * A dearth in the Turkish army * Victuallers go out for provision but are utterly destroyed by the Persians * Mustaffa and all his army goeth to fight with his enemies * Divers disturbances and losses in the Turkish army by passing over the River Canac * A wonderful kind of ford found * The Turks being refreshed from divers annoyances arrive at Eres in Sirvan * Mustaffa fortifieth
  • Eres and leaveth Caitasb Bassa in it * Mustaffa departeth and leaveth Osman Bassa as general and vizier in Sumachia * The people of Derbent yield themselves to Osman Bassa * Mustaffa returneth home: is in the country of Levant Book 4 The deliberations of Amurath * He sendeth out new Commissions * He causeth Manucchair to be circumcised and delivereth his brother Alessandro into his custody * In Persia, Emanguli-Chan maketh new offers to the king * Simon maketh a request to the Persian king * The cause why Simon changeth his religion * Simon is despatched by the Persian king to annoy the Turks in Georgia * The new assembly of the Turkish army
  • * The insurrection of the soldiers * Chars fortified by Mustaffa * Mustaffa falls into new cogitations for the succours of Teflis * Hassan is sent by him to Georgia, where there happeneth a battle full of loss to the Turks * The Georgians assail;
  • the Turks afresh * Alyculi Chan is taken prisoner * Victorious Hassan succoureth Teflis * The stratagems of Simon * Hassan deceiveth Alyculi Chan * Simon being also deceived, and all in a rage, utterly destroyeth the Turks * Hassan arriveth at Chars * Alyculi imprisoned at Ezirum * Abas Mirizi accused of rebellion by Salmas, who made the eldest Persian prince his son-in-law * Mustaffa discharged of his generalship * A comparison between Sinan and Mustaffa * Sinan accuseth Mustaffa * Two treasurers of Mustaffa imprisoned * The death of Mahamet the chief vizier, and the manner of his death * Sinan elected chief vizier * Mustaffa and his two treasurers released * Sinan elected general * The Persian king sendeth ambassadors to Constantinople * The conditions of peace * The arrival of the Ambassador Maxut Chan at Constantinople * His speech to Amurath * The Persian
  • king at Tauris * The levy of soldiers in Persia * The consultations of the Persians * The Turcomanes follow the Persians* Tocomac chosen to go with an army into Georgia * The treaty of peace with Amurath at Constantinople * Maxut Chan made treasurer or chamberlain of Tauris Maxut Chan accued by Emir Chan * Maxut Chan flees from Persia and runneth to the Turks * Maxut Chan at Constantinople Book 5 Sinan stayeth eight days at Chars and departeth for Teflis * Talogli and Homar are assaulted by Simon and Homar is slain * Sinan succoureth Teflis * The Georgians and the Persians expect the Turks to assault them * They assault the Turks * Sinan with all his camp goeth against the Persians, who utterly refuse to join battle with him * Sinan goes to Chielder and mustereth his army * He is mocked of his soldiers * Sinan returns to Chars where he stayeth a month and then returneth to Erzirum: and so is called to Constantinople * Ebrain Chan the new Ambassador of Persia cometh to Sinan * The ambassador at Constantinople with Sinan * Solenine feasts for the circumcision of the Ottoman prince * Ebrain Chan is sent prisoner to Erzirum * Amurath commiteth the succours for Teflis to Mahomet the Bassa, who with twenty-five thousand persons departeth in the latter end of August from Erzirum * Mustaffa the Georgian joineth with Mahamet at Archelech * The Georgians and the Persians send to defy the Turks and to bid them to battle * Mahamet the Bassa refuseth battle * The Turks pass over the river and are assaulted by their enemies * The Turks retire to Teflis * Mahamet the Bassa maketh a public oration to his soldiers at Teflis * Mahamet leaveth a task among his soldiers and so departeth * A disorder in the departure among the Curdi * At Altunchala a counterfeit Counsel house called to betray Mustaffa, who woundeth the Lieutenant of Mahamet, the Bassa of Caraemit, and Mahamet himself Book 6 The Persian king resolveth to ride to Heri against his son, Abas * Emir Chan promiseth the king to defend his territories from the Turks * The governor of Sasvar beheaded * The king attempteth to get his son Abas into his hands * Abas writeth to his father, and the tenor of his letters * The two Persian princes reconcileth themselves one to the other * Salmas accused and beheaded * The Persian king and the prince his son returneth to Casbin * Ferat chosen general of the Turkish army * Ferat repaireth Aggia Chalsai, and Reivan * Tocomac seeketh means to be revenged of the injuries of the Turks * Ferat returneth to Chars and causes a sangiacco of the Curdi to be beheaded * Manucchiar the Georgianm beheadeth the messengers and gentlemen ushers of Amurath and divdeth the treasure between himself and his cousin Simon * Hassan goeth to succour Teflis * Ferat is at Erzirum and dimisseth his army * The Persian king is afraid of new stirs and cometh to Tauris with a great army * General ferat gathereth a new army at Chars * Davt Chan yieldeth himself to the Turks * Simon goeth to assault resvan the Bassa: he hath his horse slain under him and is strangely delivered from extreme danger * Tomanis defended by Hassan * A great dearth in the army of Ferat * Ferat is threatened by his soldiers * Ferat goes to Clisca and meaneth to fortify it * Revan is hardly entreated by the soldiers, who threaten their general again * The general's life is saved by Amurath the Bassa of Caramania * A most confused tumult in the army and Ferat is enforced to yield to his soldiers and returneth the Erzirum * The original occasion and manner of escape of Alyculi Chan * The Persian
  • king dismisseth all his soldiers * Emir Chan is imprisoned and, having his eyes put out, by the king's appointment, he dieth miserably in prison New displeasures arise among the Turcomanes for the death of Emir Chan * Amurath conceiveth great hope of the valour of Osman the Bassa * Sciaus writeth to the Tartarian of the coming of Osman to Constantinople * Osman with four thousand soldiers putteth himself in the way to Constantinople * Osman is assaulteth by the Tartarians but Osman overcometh them Osman putteth the Tartarian king to death and appointeth his brother to be his successor * Osman departeth from Caffa by galleys and arriveth at Constantinople * Osman is chosen chief vizier * Osman departeth from Constantinople and goeth to Erzirum * Osman gathereth a greater army than all those that hath hitherto been gathered in these wars Book 7 Hassan the Bassa of Cairo in Egypt is called to court * Ebrain the Bassa, chosen to be the king's son-in-law, is sent to Cairo * Hassan in the company of the Master of the King's Horse, goeth to Constantinople * He is committed to prison and spoiled of all his wealth * At the instant of the queen, Hassan is set free * Ebrain is called to Constantinople to finish the marriage * Ebrain cometh with an army of twelve thousand horse * The offspring, religion, customs, territories, and weapons of the Drusians * Three of the chief lords of the Drusians come to meet Ebrain * Serafadin also cometh to Ebrain * Serafadin being accused by his three enemies, speaketh in his own defence * Serafadin is committed to prison * Manogli standeth obstinate and refuseth to come to Ebrain but writeth letters unto him * Ebrain resolveth to burn the country of Manogli * Veis the Bassa with his son the sangiacco of Jerusalem discomfited by the Drusians * Gomeda is sent to Manogli * Aly the Bassa goeth to Manogli * Manogli sendeth his mother to Ebrain * Gomeda goeth again to Manogli and returneth with a very rich present * Gomeda goeth once again to Manogli and returneth with new presents * Andera belonging to Manogli is sacked and nineteen other towns burnt * Three hundred and fifty persons belonging to Manogli hewn in pieces * The chief agent of Manogli is slain * The soldiers of Serafadin slain * The soldiers of the Turkish galleys sack all the eea coast of Serafadin and Manogli * Aly Carsusogli buyeth the title of a Bassa with a hundred thousand ducats * Mansurogli laid in chains and sent to the galleys * The territory of Mansurogli is sacked * Ebrain is joyfully received into Constantinople * Ebrain giveth great presents to the Sultan * Quarrels between the Arabaians and the sangiacco of Jerusalem * The subassi of Jerusalem is slain quickly by appointment of the sangiacco * Osman the Bassa is in readiness to depart from Erzirum, saying that he would not go to Tauris but to Nassivan Book 8 Osman departeth from Erzirum with his army, which is so great that it seemeth to be many men's powers united together * Osman dismisseth forty thousand soldiers out of his army as being superfluous and needless * Osman taketh a review of his army * Osman passeth on to Coy, to Marant, and to Soffian, and desireth Tauris * The Vauward is assaulted and overthrown by the Persian prince * The army of the Persian prince * The army of the Persian king * Osman sendeth out a new company against the prince, whereupon followeth a bloody battle * Alyculi assaileth the Turkish army and retireth again * Alyculi assaileth it afresh in the nighttime and returneth not to the city Tauris but withdraweth himself into the tents of the Persian king * The Persians that guard the gates of Tauris fight with a band of the Turkish army * The Persians retire into the city, and in the turnings of the streets and places under the ground, they work great mischief upon the Turks that followed them into the city * A description of the situation of Tauris * Osman maketh choice of certain gardens for a plot to build a fort in * The fort is finished in the space of six and thirty days * Certain Turks are found strangled in a bath within Tauris and Osman commandeth that the city of Tauris should be sacked;
  • whereupon doth ensue most miserable and horrible spectacles and mortal battle * The Persian heralds return to provoke the Turks to fresh battle * The ordering of both armies * Most bloody battles between them both * The Bassa of Trebisonda and the Bassa of Caraemit, with certain sangiacchi are slain * The Bassa of Garamania taken prisoner * Osman is at the point of death, by reason of grievous disease * Giaffer Eunucho the Bassa is chosen general, and governor of Tauris * The Taursians recover the spoil that was taken from them in Tauris * Osman the Bassa, vizier and general, dieth at Sancazan * The overthrow of the Persians * The muster of the army at Van * Teflis succoured quietly * Maxut Chan is named Bassa of Aleppo * A letter sent from the camp to Aly the Bassa of Aleppo Book 9 The occasion of the Persian's perplexed cogitations * The Persian's resolution to assault the fort * The Persians seek to be reconciled with the Turcomanes * The Turcomanes do deceitfully promise to help the Persians
  • * The Persians king delivereth his son Tamas to the Trucomanes * The Turcomanes flee from the assault of the fort, and call Tamas their king * The Persian prince pursueth the fugitive Turcomanes * The Persian prince putteth to death Mahamet Chan and calife the Sultan: he commiteth his own brother Tamas to prison and withdraweth himself to Casbin to gather a new army * Saitan-Chalasi abandoned by the soldiers that were in it * The inhabitants of Chiufall give tribute to the Bassa of Rejvan, and also to Alyculi, whereby they preserve themselves in peace * Cicala the Bassa at the request of Giaffer the Bassa mindeth to succour the fort * Cicala feareth the coming of the Persian king, and retireth to Van * King Amurath at Constantinople chooseth Ferat the Bassa to be his general, who had once already been general before Osman the Bassa * Ferat goeth to Sivas and so to Erzirum, where he meeteth with a very great army, which was in great distress by reason of a dearth * Ferat passeth on to Van and there findeth soldiers of Soria, Palestina, Jury, and Mesopotamia * The mustering of the whole army * The Turkish general hath intelligence with certain traitorous and rebellious Persians * The Persian prince cometh to Tauris * The causes, why the prince would not attempt to assault the fort * The Persian prince overthroweth Zeinello, sacketh the city of Salmas, and discomfiteth the Bassa of Rejvan * A treaty for the exchange of the two prisoners Ebrain Chan and Amurath the Bassa but nothing concluded by it * The subjects of Manogli do great harm in Soria * Aly the Bassa is sent from Constantinople to Soria against the Drusians * The prince setteth his army in array and goeth to meet and endommage Ferat * The prince discovereth the treason of the rebels and so retireth * The fort is succoured by Ferat, without any speech or word of any battle from his enemies * The stratgen of Simon cometh to no good issue * Teflis is relieved with succours * The Persian prince cometh to Genge, and is thrust through the body by one of his own keepers A Letter to the Worshipful Signor Mario Corrado Glossary of names and terms used in the book

Author Info

Rudi Matthee is the John and Dorothy Munroe Distinguished Professor of History, University of Delaware. A leading international authority on the Safavid dynasty, his books include The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History (2005), Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan (I.B.Tauris 2012), The Monetary History of Iran: From the Safavids to the Qajars (with Willem Floor & Patrick Clawson, I.B.Tauris, 2013) and as co-editor (with Elena Andreeva) Russians in Iran: Diplomacy and Power in the Qajar Era and Beyond (I.B.Tauris, 2018).Giovanni-Tommaso Minadoi (1548? -1618) was resident physician to the Venetian legation in Syria and was subsequently Professor of Medicine at the University of Padua. Physicians in Venetian service in the Middle East traditionally sought to gather diplomatic intelligence in addition to their medical activities, and Minadoi's appointment as medico condotto to the Venetian consuls in Aleppo provided him with important contacts and made him a valued source of political and commercial information.

Bibliographic Info

Imprint: I.B.Tauris
Publisher: I.B.Tauris & Co. Ltd.

ISBN: 9781780769523
Publication Date: 30 Dec 2018
Number of Pages: 484
Height: 234
Width: 156

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